Preference 1:
Where do you concentrate your attention?

Extraversion (E)
Likes variety, action
Likes to have people around
Enjoys many different relationships
Energized by what goes on in the outside world
Often acts quickly
Communicates more by talking than by writing
Need to experience world to understand it

WRITING TIP: Appreciate your ability to work under dearline pressure

Introversion (I)
Likes quiet for concentration
May prefer to be alone
Needs few close relationships
Energized by what goes on in the inner world
Prefers to think before acting
Most comfortable when working quietly "inside"
Likes to understand the world before experiencing it

WRITING TIP: Try to create some quiet time and space for your writing activities and assignments


Preference 2:
How do you acquire information?

Sensing (S)
Looks at specific parts & pieces
Lives in the present
Prefers handling practical matters
Likes things that are definite & measurable L
Prefers facts
Starts at the beginning, moving step by step
Notices details & pertinent facts

WRITING TIP: Appreciate your ability to to research

Intuition (N)
Looks at patterns and relationships
Anticipates the future
Prefers imagining possibilities
Likes opportunities for being inventive
Acts on hunches
Jumps in anywhere; may leap over steps
Keeps "big picture" in mind

WRITING TIP: Become comfortable with writing out of order


Preference 3:
How do you make decision?

Thinking (T)
Decides with the head
Good at organizing things
Analyzes consequences & implications
Sees things as a on-looker
Tends to be firm & tough-minded
Responds more to people's ideas than feelings
Spontaneously finds flaws; critical

WRITING TIP: Rely on the assistance you get from working with an outline

Feeling (F)
Decides with the heart
Good at reconciling differences
Good at understanding people and persuading them
Sees things as a particvipant
Tends to be sympathetic
Responds more to people's values than their thoughts
Appreciates spontaneity

WRITING TIP: Hone your ability to follow your instincts in writing, especially in preparing a first draft


Preference 4:
How do you orient yourself to the outside world?

Judging (J)
Prefers organized lifestyle
Likes order & structure
Likes to get things settles & finished
Likes to have life "under control"
Likes being decisive; closure
Needs only essentials to begin work
Schedules work in stages to finish on time
Uses lists as agendas for action

WRITING TIP: Don't give undue focus to form and packaging

Perceiving (P)
Prefers flexible lifestyle
Likes "going with the flow"
Adapts easily to changing situations
Experiences life "as it happens"
Curious; enjoys surprises
Wants to know all about a new job
Works at the last minute under deadline pressure
Uses lists as reminders of what must be done someday

WRITING TIP: Concentrate on finishing touches and proofreading


REMINDER: Everyone uses both sides of the scales, though one is usually preferred and better developed


Preferred Methods of Communication

Sensing plus Thinking
ST people are mainly interested in the realities of a given situation. Reality for them is what can be observed, collected, and verified directly by the senses -- by seeing, hearing, touching, etc. Because the kind of judgment they trust is thinking, they make decisions by logical analysis, with a step-by-step process of reasoning from cause to effect, from premise to conclusion.

Sensing plus Feeling
SF people are also interested in observable reality. Because the kind of judgment they trust is feeling, they make their decisions with personal warmth, and weigh how much things matter to themselves and others. Their highly developed powers of observation, applied to people, lead them to be particularly sensitive to other's reactions and feelings.

Intuition plus Feeling
NF people make decisions with personal warmth, but since they prefer intuition, their interest is not in facts but in possibilities. They are attracted by new projects, things that have not happened yet but might be made to happen, new truths that are not yet known but might be found out, or, above all, new possibilities for people.

Intuition plus Thinking
NT people are also interested in possibilities, but since they prefer thinking, they handle the possibilities by applying objective and logical criteria. They are attracted to jobs where they can use their skill at analysis. Often the possibility they choose is a theoretical or technical one.

From Introduction to Type


Preferred Methods of Communication

Sensing - S

Like evidence (facts, details, and examples) presented first
Want practical and realistic applications shown
Rely on direct experience to provide anecdotes
use an orderly step-by-step approach in presentations
Like suggestions to be straightforward and feasible
Refer to a specific example
In meetings, are inclined to follow the agenda

Intuition - N
Like global schemes, with broad issues presented first
Want possible future challenges discussed
Rely on insights and imagination to provoke discussion
Use a round-about approach in presentations
Like suggestions to be novel and unusual
Refer to a general concept
In meetings, are inclined to use the agenda as a starting point

Thinking - T
Prefer to be brief and concise
Want the pros and cons of each alternative to be listed
Can be intellectually critical and objective
Convinced by cool, impersonal reasoning
Present goals and objectives first
Consider emotions and feelings as data to weigh
In meetings, seek involvement with tasks

Feeling - F
Prefer to be sociable and friendly
Want to know why an alternative is valuable and how it affects people
Can be interpersonally appreciative
Convinced by personal information, enthusiastically delivered
Present points of agreement first
Consider logic and objectivity as data to value
In meetings, seek involvement with people

From Introduction to Type in Organizations


Resources re: Psychological Type

Butler Library
Isachsen & Berens (1988). Working together. Coronado CA: Neworld.
Keirsey & Bates (1984). Please understand me. Del Mar CA: Prometheus
Myers & Myers (1980). Gifts differing. Palo Alto CA: Consulting Psychologists.
Myers (1987). Introduction to type. Gainesville FL: CAPT
Smith (1993). "Psychological type and public relations." Journal of public relations research. Fall 5, 3. 177-199

Library Reserve: Smith / Com-610
Library Book: Excellence in PR
File #1785: Introduction to Type
File #1786: Introduction to Type in Organizations
Faculty Book: Managing PR
File #1767: Psychological Type and Public Relations
(2 hours during day; overnight after 3)
Library Book: PR Theory